week two/three

• serif & sans serif fonts
what's the difference?
—which is easier to read?
—what is the typographic term for readability?
—what factors affect readability?

• positive and reversed text
—what's the difference?
—which is more legible on a computer screen?

• graphic design output
what forms does it take?
—why are graphic designers concerned about output?
—creativity has to fit within the limitations of the final output device
—limitation is actually liberating, eliminating unnecessary effort and allowing a sharper focus on creative problem solving and a speedier solution
—first you learn to design, then you learn to design quickly—undr deadline

• resolution rule-of-thumb
—high resolution for print output
—low resolution for Web output

• color mode rule-of-thumb
—CMYK for offset print output
—RGB for Web output
—either mode for photomechanical output (ink jet, laser, certain digital presses)

vector vs. raster
what's the difference?
continuous tone, line art
—which can be scaled without degradation of image?

• scaling & skewing
—what's the difference?
—what 'subjects' of image should never be skewed?
—what 'constraint' key is held down for a true scale?

• adobe creative suite
—which program does what job best?
—what file 'basis' does each program output?

• The difference between fine art and graphic art.

—Graphic designers balance the aesthetic and technical concerns of image creation with document output. The artist (you) provides the window dressing so the message has punch!

week two/three

Distinction is made between logos designed using only type, combined marks made with text and image, or those of only image. Some logos just blur the distictions and refuse to be catergorized 7even.

An 'image only' logo that everyone recognizes, like the Nike Swoosh, took millions of dollars and billions of print, Web, and video iterations accompanied by the word, 'Nike,' to become internationally known by the Swoosh alone. Now it can mean nothing else—such is the power of graphic bombardment. The second most recognized image on the planet is Coca-Cola. Even if it doesn't spell Coca-Cola, if it borrows the same font and color scheme we still perceive it as Coca-Cola because that image is burned into our collective conscienceness! (Can you guess the most recognized image on the planet?—according to some sources)

[Perception is wonderful tool to be weilded in our design work to shape the hearts and minds of our viewing, reading, and listening audience.]

Can you recognize other company and franchise identities simply by their dominant use of imagery, typography, and graphic style?
07 (What's wrong with this picture?)

Logos are evolutionary. As lifestyles and political movements evolve and change, visual connotations must evolve and change, too. What once was condsidered decorate takes on new cultural meaning. Apple: old, new.

Sometimes logos breathe with new life for other reasons, not the least of which is just because people like to look at things that are new and fresh.

Logos are self-referential and easily comprehended like Pepsi-Cola or Bilstein Shock Absorbers—meant to be readily understood by everyone; or cryptic and highly dependent on context or prior knowledge to make sense, like a band logo popular to a particular listening audience.

Logos can reinforce the message of the mark by conveying a 'double meaning' through clever use of imagery and text. Excellent example is Milwaukee Brewers logo submitted by your colleague Donovan Olson. It's also done quite well by Baskin Robbins. Notice how well it works in any color, or just black— a necessary requirement for an effective logo design.

Laughably, the process occasionally backfires and yields a second meaning never meant to be conveyed! The really astonishing thing is how far it goes before anyone notices. These are real, not just staged or made up to be funny.

logo-design-trend-predictions (more like categories, really)

logo lecture

Color and Brand Identity


1. Color increases brand recognition by up to 80 percent [University of Loyola, Maryland study]

2. Heinz

Color influences brand identity in a variety of ways. Consider the phenomenal success Heinz EZ Squirt Blastin' Green ketchup has had in the marketplace. More than 10 million bottles were sold in the first seven months following its introduction, with Heinz factories working 24 hours a day, seven days a week to keep up with demand. The result: $23 million in sales attributable to Heinz green ketchup [the highest sales increase in the brand's history]. All because of a simple color change.

3. Apple Computer

Apple brought color into a marketplace where color had not been seen before. By introducing the colorful iMacs, Apple was the first to say, "It doesn't have to be beige". The iMacs reinvigorated a brand that had suffered $1.8 billion of losses in two years. (And now we have the colorful iPods.)Color Attracts Attention
Frequently Cited "Facts"

Color Attracts Attention
Frequently Cited "Facts"

1. Tests indicate that a black and white image may sustain interest for less than two-thirds a second, whereas a colored image may hold the attention for two seconds or more. (A product has one-twentieth of a second to halt the customer's attention on a shelf or display.)

2. People cannot process every object within view at one time. Therefore, color can be used as a tool to emphasize or de-emphasize areas.

3. A Midwestern insurance company used color to highlight key information on their invoices. As a result, they began receiving customer payments an average of 14 days earlier.


Several years ago Chevrolet introduced their new car model, the Nova, to Latin America without anyone bothering to check that "no va" means "no go" in Spanish!

Deadly Color Matters

It was reported on CNN.COM that the US government had to change the color of their food aid parcels dropped in Afghanistan. It seems the bright yellow color of the food drops - which had been chosen because it stands out against the landscape - is the exact same shade of bright yellow of the cluster bomb. In other words, Afghanis may approach and handle unexploded bombs thinking they are food parcels. Note: Who was responsible for research and planning when choosing the color of this packaging?

—end of material for quiz 01—

Page Layout & Good Design


Some basic tenets of good design in page layout, intended to provide clear understanding of message and congruency of text and images.

The division of the page into areas in harmony with one another is the heart of all good page layout design. Harmony is just one of the many borrowed terms from other art forms used to describe a balanced composition, a unified design, a pleasing whole—when referring to successful page layout and good design in general.

Good page layout (especially grid layout) is not dissimilar to the logical division of streets in a city, or the arrangement of furniture in a room. Sometimes it’s easy to find your way around in a new city, or you become hopelessly lost.

Some rooms invite you to recline and be at ease, or to clear your head and get busy; while others just persist in being uncomforatble places to sit, or permit you no peace in which you can work. (Feng shui) Whether on land, in a room, or with page layout, this is generally the result of either good or poor planning, or perhaps no planning at all.

Good design doesn’t happen by accident. Successful creative problem solving, the arrangement of harmonious spacial relationships in two or three dimensions, usually involves approaching the challenge according to some basic guidelines.

Some people arrive at aesthetically pleasing and effective unified design by intuition alone. The rest of us might do well to break it down and think about it!


—do some research



—harmony of elements

it's not enough to design just the positive spaces, the negative spaces need to be beautiful on their own

—white space (negative space is the same thing as white space)

—establish visual hierarchy (first read, second read, etc.)

balance the page

—scale, don't skew

Layout Styles

Grid Layout—invisible structure that underlies the page and functions as a guide for the placement of page elements. (blank grid), (grid with text), (photomontage)

Path Layout—assumes no underlying structure; a more spontaneous approach. The designer provides a visually obvious path for the reader’s eye to follow, through a series of steps, so the path the eyes takes, the order of information received (or given) is strictly controlled.


—golden mean/golden ratio (divine proportion, divine section, golden cut, golden proportion, etc.)

—manipulate figure/ground relationships (perception)

—get all the elements before you begin (client issue)





positioning (placement)—

tenets design



Type_Basics.pdf (Lupton)


Palomar College Style Manual